Title: Land-use and climate change policy challenges in Mongolia: Analysis of the policy and legal framework for the implementation of nationally determined contributions

Final project
Year of publication:
Supervisors: Jon Geir Petursson
Nationally determined contribution, climate policy, policy analysis, climate change, Mongolia


Enabling policies and legal frameworks are essential for implementing the climate change action plan outlined in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement. This study analyses Mongolian national legal and strategic documents as Mongolia needs to cut greenhouse gas emission to reach its NDC targets. The study also comprises interviews with local stakeholders to examine NDC implementation and address implementation challenges. Policy analysis should consider how factors or causes are defined as the root or cause of an issue (characterisation), and the policy issue conceptualised in the policy statement (problematisation). This ensuing question therefore guided the policy issue interrogation: are the drivers of greenhouse gas emissions, which NDCs are anticipated to tackle, recognised in the policies and characterised? The interviews addressed opportunities and constraints in implementing the NDC: what are the enabling and disabling factors? How do the policy and legal frameworks support NDC implementation? From the analysis, Mongolia’s policy and regulatory environment are satisfactory mainly for addressing the causes of greenhouse gas emissions, but there is a lack of addressing barriers to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures. It can be concluded that Mongolia has a suitable policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to tackle climate change but does not have a suitable legal environment for mitigating climate change. Also, a failure to consult the people affected by or implementing the policies leads to constraints on NDC implementation. The local administration’s lack of attention to local herders is noticed during the study.

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