The Geothermal Training Programme was established in the shadow of the oil crisis, when nations were looking for new and renewable energy sources in order to reduce dependence on hydrocarbons, in particular oil with its rapidly escalating prices. The current situation is somewhat similar in the sense that the international community is looking towards renewable energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases.

The development of geothermal resources requires a group of highly skilled specialists from a number of disciplines of science and engineering. Because of its diversity, geothermal energy has not been taught as a specific subject at universities. The training of geothermal specialists has mainly taken place on-the-job within companies and institutions. International geothermal schools have contributed significantly in the transfer of geothermal technology, especially for the benefit of developing countries.

The first official statement on establishing a UNU geothermal institute in Iceland was made in 1975 when the United Nations University (UNU) had just been established. After a first proposal in 1976 and an international workshop in 1978, the Government of Iceland decided in October 1978 to ask Orkustofnun (the National Energy Authority - NEA), to sign an Agreement on Association with the UNU and establish the United Nations University Geothermal Training Programme (UNU-GTP).  The Geothermal Training Programme has been hosted by the Orkustofnun since its establishment.  The UNU-GTP operated under the UNU brand from 1979 to 2019.  

The first annual training session of the UNU-GTP started in May 1979 with two UNU Fellows from the Philippines. Since then, a group of scientists and engineers from energy agencies and research organizations as well as universities in the developing countries and Central and Eastern European countries, have come to Iceland every spring to spend six months in highly specialized studies in geological exploration, borehole geology, geophysical exploration, reservoir engineering, borehole geophysics, chemistry of thermal fluids, environmental science, geothermal utilization, drilling technology, and project management and finances.

The hallmark of UNU-GTP is to give university graduates engaged in geothermal work intensive on-the-job training in their chosen fields of specialization. The trainees work side by side with geothermal professionals in Iceland. The aim is to assist developing countries with significant geothermal potential in building up groups of specialists that cover most aspects of geothermal exploration and development. Thereby, enabling their capacity to develop and utilise their geothermal resources.  The Government of Iceland funds the operations of the Programme through its official development assistance.  

UNU-GTP also offers successful candidates the possibility of extending their studies to MSc, or PhD degrees in geothermal sciences or engineering in cooperation with the University of Iceland and Reykjavik University.  

There are four Training Programmes in Iceland, each working towards the Sustainable Development Goals within their own theme.  On 1st January 2020, GTP joined hands with the three former UNU Programmes in Iceland to form GRÓ: the Centre for Capacity Development – Sustainable Use of Natural Resources and Societal Change.  The GRÓ Centre serves as an umbrella for the four Programmes and is under the auspices of UNESCO - The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.  

GRÓ Geothermal Training Programme established in 1978
GRÓ Fisheries Training Programme established in 1998
GRÓ Land Restoration Training Programme established in 2010
GRÓ Gender Equality Studies and Training Programme established in 2013