Title: Developing an Eco-Industrial Park; Structures and Policies: A Case study of the KenGen Green Energy Park, Kenya

University Thesis
Year of publication:
United Nations University, Geothermal Training Programme
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KenGen Green Energy Park intends to use renewable geothermal resources for the production of steel, glass, textile, leather, organic fertilizer, and food processing. The required thermal energy will be harnessed from 2000 t/hr of geothermal brine in various separator stations and steam from low-enthalpy geothermal wells. The study aims to develop the park as a sustainable and competitive Eco-Industrial Park, through improved efficiency, by embracing a robust circular economy. The objective was to develop industrial clusters, assess material flows within the clusters, and determine industrial symbiotic opportunities between the firms. Using the standard EIP International Framework, the development of a multi-criteria assessment of policy interventions and recommendations to the energy park was done. Tools used in the study were; Stan2Web software for Material Flow Analysis, an EIP policy tool for assessment of policy interventions, a stakeholder matrix for mapping relevant stakeholders and a standard EIP management models as a guide to developing a park management model. From the results, three clusters of companies emerged; steel-glass, textile-leather, and food-organic fertilizer clusters. The clustering of the industries was based on utility requirements; waste generated and emissions potential. The estimated thermal energy available in these clusters is between 2.5 MWt and 69.1 MWt depending on the energy source. The MFA models generated indicate that the flow of raw materials, energy, products, by-products, and wastes generated can be mapped within the production processes. Various synergies emerge between different firms that can potentially share the resources for mutual benefits. This industrial symbiosis links resulted in the creation of opportunities from utility and infrastructure sharing as well as waste and by-product exchanges. From the multi-criteria analysis, the results indicated that the development of a National Action Plan on EIP is essential. This incorporates industrial symbiosis and resource efficiency concepts into the existing industrial policies. Other relevant interventions include inter alia; tax holidays to encourage SMEs, the use of renewable energy for industrial processes, increase foreign direct investment to EIPs and social capital creation. A stakeholder map guided the development of a park management model. The model promotes a collaborative approach that underlines resource use efficiency through cleaner production and industrial symbiosis. It seeks to strengthen partnerships between industry, government, and research institutions to enhance eco-innovation. The findings of this study form the basis for the development of KenGen Energy Park as an Eco-Industrial Park with an integrated and resource-efficient circular economy.

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