Title: Impact analysis of electric vehicles charging on the Icelandic power system

University Thesis
Year of publication:
United Nations University, Geothermal Training Programme
Place of publication:
Number of pages:
Document URL: Link
Supervisors: Ragnar Kjartansson


Increased adoption of electromobility in the form of Battery Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid
Electric Vehicles is anticipated in Iceland over the next few years. Electrified trans- port will
lead to increases in system peaks that are higher than the corresponding increases in annual
electricity demand. The objective of this study is to assess the likely incremental impact of EVs
on both the transmission and distribution networks through evaluating the network reinforcements
needed to support the increase in electricity demand and quantify associated costs. This is done by
extensive analyses of large datasets of the transmission and distribution grids and transportation
data. The country depends on imported petroleum fuels to meet its transport fuel demand. Transition
to EVs is of particular interest for Iceland as electricity can be supplied from low cost clean
renewable energy resources. To evaluate how the transition to EVs will impact the system maximum
load, four load profiles are de- fined: BAU, PROPOSAL, PREMIUM and BAN scenarios. The load profile
models used for scenario analysis is done by incorporating key fiscal parameters including
different taxes on vehicle usage pattern and upfront purchase cost, petroleum fuel tax levies,
vehicle tax exempting, extra fees and subsidies. Realistic charging profiles of EVs are based on
real life driving data from different traffic zones. The fleet number in each area is estimated
based on the population and commercial density of electricity consumption in the regions. This EV
load growth is studied in three different loads forecasted assumptions or scenarios: Base case
scenario, Upgraded system scenario and the slow progress energy forecast scenario. The scenarios
are analysed using two separate Icelandic power system models. The reinforce- ment needs are
quantified for up to 32 years. The year 2018 is assumed to be the first year PHEVs and BEVs are
implemented, while 2050 would allow the sufficient technology time to penetrate the Icelandic
vehicle fleet fully. The 2018-2050 long term plan takes a strategic view of how the network should
be developed to meet future objectives. Five generation portfolios in different geographical
locations are defined to cater for the increasing demand as a result of EVs uptake. The different
production locations should put various stress on the power system. Steady state power system
analysis is carried out using simulations on mathematical models of electrical power and power
system components, which play an es- sential role in both operational control and planning by
developing the required mathematical models and then using these models to perform power flow and
contingency analysis. The models used in this report is the Icelandic base model that simulates a
winter period when the load was at its peak and a model that modifies the base model by
implementing all the changes as per Landsnet’s Network Development Plan 2018-2027. The models are
developed in MATPOWER and MATLAB used in automating and simulations.

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